Die Steel with Regulated Austenitic Transformation for Hot Deformation of Copper-Nickel Alloy
Keywords:steel, copper-nickel alloy, austenitic transformation, chemical composition, heat treatment, temperature, mechanical properties, structure, stamping tool
Introduction. At the operating temperature (above 650 °C), even the most heat-resistant steels (GOST 5950—2000) significantly weaken, which is the main reason for rapid failure of tools. The additional introduction of nickel alloying element into the chemical composition of ferrite-based steel makes it possible to reduce the critical
points A1 and A3. Due to this, a new class of steels that belong to the ferrite state, at room temperature, and shift to the austenitic region at operating temperature has been developed.
Problem Statement. The use of die steel for hot deformation (DSHD) is limited to a certain temperature range above which it gets weaker therefore to increase the service life of such steels requires their additional alloying and the use of energy-intensive processes of their heat treatment. In alloyed structural steels of ferrite
state, at a high temperature, there is reported the coagulation of carbide phases, with the heat resistance decreasing in the course of tempering.
Purpose. The purpose of this research is to increase the service life of the die tool (dies) made of alloy structural steel for hot pressing of copper-nickel alloy at operating temperature of 850—950 °C.
Materials and Methods. Metallographic studies of steel, X-ray phase analysis, dilatometric analysis.
Results. In the case of hot deformation of the copper-nickel alloy MNZh 5-1, the service life of the dies made of RATE 4Kh3N5М3F steel increases in comparison with 3Kh3М3F steel.
Conclusions. The die steels with the initial ferrite state to be used in the austenitic state are determined by the temperature position of α → γ — transformation. The tool warmup during the operation ensures such a transformation during the next long operation in the austenitic state. That is, within the entire period of hightemperature operation of the tool, the austenitic structure of the steel is preserved. This method differs from the conventional approach to heat-resistant alloy die steels for which, on the contrary, an increase in the phase transformation temperature is one of the main conditions for enhancing the durability of tools for hot deformation.
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