Vacuum Activated Diffusion Chromium Plating of 15Kh12VNMF and 20Kh1M1F1TR Steels
Keywords:vacuum chrome plating, steel 15Kh12VNMF, steel 20Kh1M1F1TR, heat resistance, diffusion layer
Introduction. 15Kh12VNMF and 20Kh1M1F1TR steels are used in mechanical engineering as a material for turbine parts. To increase the operating temperature of such parts, it is necessary to improve the heat resistance of their surface.
Problem Statement. Increasing the heat resistance of steel surface is possible by applying a protective layer to it. It is almost impossible to say unequivocally which coating and method of its formation on a particular steel provide a sufficient increase in the heat resistance of the surface of this material. Previously, 15Kh12VNMF and
20Kh1M1F1TR steels were not protected by vacuum chromium plating in sodium chloride vapor.
Purpose. The purpose of this research is to study the process of vacuum activated chromium plating of 15Kh12VNMF and 20Kh1M1F1TR steels and its effect on the characteristics of the samples made of these materials.
Materials and Methods. The samples for research are made of 15Kh12VNMF and 20Kh1M1F1TR steels. Tests for cavitation and abrasive wear have been made on stands. The heat resistance test has been carried out in
a muffle furnace in the air. The metallographic methods and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) have been used to study the sample surface.
Results. The 15Kh12VNMF and 20Kh1M1F1TP steel samples have been plated with chromium by the vacuum saturation method in sodium chloride vapor at temperature T = 1070 °C and 1100 °C; the process duration is 4 and 10 hours. It has been found that the samples made of these steels and plated with chromium under cavitation and abrasive action slightly fall behind the original samples in terms of wear resistance. It has been established that when the samples are chromium plated, a diffusion layer with a thickness from 50 to 130 μm is formed on their surface, depending on the treatment conditions. The content of chromium in the surface layer of 15Kh12VNMF and 20Kh1M1F1TR steels varies, respectively, within 56—56 wt. % and 81—8 1 wt. %, depending on the saturation process parameters. The comparative tests of these samples for heat resistance have been carried out in the air, at
a temperature of 900 °C. It has been found that the heat resistance of chrome-plated samples is much higher than that of the original ones.
Conclusions. The studies of the process of vacuum activated chromium plating of samples made of 15Kh12VNMF and 20Kh1M1F1TR steels have shown that such treatment significantly increases the heat resistance of these materials in comparison with the original ones.
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