Technology Gaps: the Concept, Models, and Ways of Overcoming

1Vishnevsky, VP  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8539-0444
1Harkushenko, OM  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9153-3763
2Kniaziev, SI  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5308-4960
1Institute of Industrial Economics of the NAS of Ukraine
2Ukrainian National Forestry University
Sci. innov. 2020, 16(2):3-17
https://doi.org/10.15407/scine16.02.003
Section: General Problems of the Modern Research and Innovation Policy
Language: English
Abstract: 
Introduction. The Fourth industrial revolution and accelerated development of Industry 4.0 disruptive technologies are accompanied by the formation of new value creation networks and the redistribution of production facilities that partially return to advanced economies.
Problem Statement. Processes of technological development and new value chains’ formation are turbulent, so that some countries have taken lead in the sphere of technology, while others have become outsiders. Between them, new technology gaps are emerging or existing ones are changing, and this, in turn, has a critical impact on the development of national economies: productivity, job creation, profitability of businesses, employment, and population income.
Purpose. To develop a framework for defining the concept and estimating the size of technology gaps between countries with different levels of industrial development in the context of the Fourth industrial revolution.
Materials and Methods. Historical analysis of technology gap economic concepts, statistical analysis of indicators of economic and R&D development of world economies, economic and mathematical modeling of the cyber-physical technology life cycle.
Results. Within the economic theory of the technology life cycle, an emendated concept of technology gap has been proposed. It is mainly related to jump transition from one technological curve to another. To assess the size of technology gaps, a logistic function has been proposed. It determines the relationship between labor productivity and capital/labor ratio taking into account the interdependence of physical and digital capital. Using this function, technology gaps between industrialized European economies and Ukraine, which manifest themselves as multiple lags in productivity, have been identified.
Conclusions. In order to reduce the technology gaps between Ukraine and European countries, it is necessary to create a new, innovation-oriented business ecosystem that is formed in the course of gene-cultural-technological co-evolution and, above all, requires a set of measures to accelerate the development of Ukrainian R&D sphere, as well as related culture and institutions.
Keywords: business ecosystem, cyber-physical technology, industrial revolution, technological curve, technology gap